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Surabaya - Indonesia

Surabaya (Indonesian pronunciation: [suraˈbaja]) (formerly Dutch: Soerabaja) is a port city and the capital of East Java (Jawa Timur) province of Indonesia. It is one of the earliest port cities in Southeast Asia. Located on northeastern Java on the Madura Strait, it is the second-largest-city in Indonesia. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population over 2.7 million, approximately 6.5 million in the Greater Surabaya metropolitan area, and the extended metropolitan area Gerbangkertosusila is home for more than 9 million inhabitants. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Surabaya was the largest city in the Dutch East Indies, larger than Batavia (at present Jakarta) and the center of trading in the nation, which was then a competitor of Shanghai and Hong Kong. Today the city remains one of the important financial hubs of the Indonesian archipelago, arguably second only to Jakarta, and the Port of Tanjung Perak is Indonesia's second busiest seaport.

By late 15th century, Islam began to take its root in Surabaya. The settlement of Ampel Denta, located around Ampel Mosque in today Ampel sub-district, Semampir district, north Surabaya, was established by a charismatic Islamic proselytizer Sunan Ampel.

In the late fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, Surabaya grew to be a duchy, a major political and military power in eastern Java. The Portuguese writer Tomé Pires mentioned that a Muslim lord was in power in Surabaya in 1513 though likely still a vassal of the Hindu–Buddhist Majapahit. At that time, Surabaya was already a major trading port, owing to its location on the River Brantas delta and on the trade route between Malacca and the Spice Islands via the Java Sea. During the decline of Majapahit, the lord of Surabaya resisted the rise of the Demak Sultanate, and only submitted to its rule in 1530. Surabaya became independent after the death of Sultan Trenggana of Demak in 1546.

The Duchy of Surabaya entered a conflict with, and was later captured by, the more powerful Sultanate of Mataram in 1625 under Sultan Agung. :31 It was one of Mataram's fiercest campaigns, in which they had to conquer Surabaya's allies, Sukadana and Madura, and to lay siege to the city before capturing it. With this conquest, Mataram then controlled almost the whole of Java, with the exception of the Sultanate of Banten and the Dutch settlement of Batavia.

The city has its own local government and legislative body. The mayor and members of representatives are locally elected by popular vote for a 5-year term.The city government enjoys greater decentralization of affairs than the provincial body, such as the provision of public schools, public health facilities and public transportation. Current Mayor of the city is Tri Rismaharini, who is the first female mayor in Surabaya and has led Surabaya to achieve multiple regional, national and international awards since her first term as Surabaya Mayor in 2010. In 2012 Surabaya was awarded the “ASEAN Environmentally Sustainable City Award”. Besides Mayor and Deputy Mayor, there is Surabaya Municipal People's Representative Council, which is a legislative body of 50 council members directly elected by the people in legislative elections every five years.

As the provincial capital, Surabaya has a number of offices and business centers. As a metropolitan city, Surabaya became the center of economic, financial and business activities in East Java and beyond. Also, Surabaya is the second largest port city in Indonesia after Jakarta. As a trading center, Surabaya is not only a trade center for East Java but also facilitates areas in Central Java, Kalimantan and Eastern Indonesia. Surabaya's strategic location is almost in the center of Indonesia and just south of Asia makes it one of the important hubs for trading activities in Southeast Asia. Surabaya is currently in the process of building high rise skyscrapers, including apartments, condominiums, and hotels, by way of attracting foreign capital. Surabaya and the surrounding area is undergoing the most rapidly growing economic development in East Java and one of the most advanced in Indonesia. The city is also one of the most important cities in supporting Indonesia's economy.

Most of the population is engaged in services, industry and trade. Surabaya is a fast growing trading center. Major industries include shipbuilding, heavy equipment, food processing and agriculture, electronics, home furnishings, and handicrafts. Many major multinational companies are based in Surabaya, such as PT Sampoerna Tbk, Maspion, Wing's Group, Unilever Indonesia, Pakuwon Group, Jawa Pos Group and PT PAL Indonesia.

Architecture in Surabaya is a mixture of colonial, Asian, Javanese, modern, and post-modern influences. There are still many colonial era relics still standing today, such as Hotel Majapahit and Surabaya Post Office. As a relatively old city in Indonesia and Southeast Asia, most colonial buildings in Surabaya were built around the 17th century to early 20th century. These buildings have influence of Dutch / European style in the Middle Ages. Before the Second World War, there were many shop houses in the old part of the city, mostly of two storey. These shop houses have influence of European and Chinese traditions. Although some have been dismantled for new construction, there are still many old buildings that are preserved as cultural heritage and city icons, which are around the area of Kembang Jepun Street, Karet Street, Gula Street, Slompretan Street, and Rajawali Street.

After independence of Indonesia, the center of Surabaya's architectural development was concentrated only in the area of Jembatan Merah, and its surroundings. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, modern and post-modern style buildings were increasingly emerging in Surabaya. Along with the economic development, such buildings continue to grow in Surabaya until now. In the era of 2010s, Surabaya has become a region for high-rise buildings in East Java, such as The Peak Residence and One Icon Residence (200 meters).

The city has one professional football club, Persebaya. The club has won the Indonesian Premier Division three times–twice when the division was the first tier and once as the second tier. Fans refer to themselves as Bonek, an abbreviation for Bondo Nekat (which translates as "equipped by bravery"). The city is the home of CLS Knights Indonesia, a basketball club which participated in IBL (Indonesia basketball league) & Asean Basketball League.

Surabaya has a multi-purpose stadium, Gelora Bung Tomo Stadium. The stadium is used mostly for football matches. It is the new home stadium of Persebaya, replacing Gelora 10 November Stadium. It was the venue of a match between Persebaya 1927 against then–English Premier League club Queens Park Rangers, held on 23 July 2012.

East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur, abbreviated as Jatim, Javanese: Jåwå Wétan) is a province of Indonesia. Located in eastern Java, it includes the island of Madura, which is connected to Java by the longest bridge in Indonesia, the Suramadu Bridge, as well as the Kangean and Masalembu archipelagos located further east and north, respectively. Its capital is Surabaya, the second largest city in Indonesia and a major industrial center. Banyuwangi is the largest regency in East Java and the largest on the island of Java.

It covers an area of 47,800 km2, According to the 2010 Census estimates, there were 37,476,757 people residing in the East Java, making it Indonesia's second-most-populous province; the latest official estimate (for January 2014) is 41,529,481.

It has a land border only with the province of Central Java to the west; the Java Sea and the Indian Ocean border its northern and southern coasts, respectively, while the narrow Bali Strait to the east separates Java from Bali.

Two of the most important rivers in East Java is the Brantas River (290 kilometres), and the Solo River (548 kilometrrs). Brantas River has headwaters on the slopes Mount Arjuno near Batu, and flows through most areas in East Java, like Malang, Blitar, Tulungagung, Kediri, Jombang and Mojokerto. In Mojokerto, Brantas River split into two: Kali Mas, and Porong; both empties into the Madura Strait. Solo River has headwaters on the slopes of Mount Lawu which lies on the border of East Java and Central Java, and flows through a portion of the eastern part of Central Java and East Java, which eventually empties in Gresik. Brantas River and Bengawan Solo are managed by Perum Jasa Tirta I. On the slopes of Mount Lawu near the border with Central Java are Sarangan, a natural lake. The main dam in East Java, among others Ir. Sutami and Selorejo Dam, which is used for irrigation, fish farming and tourism.

East Java has a wet tropical climate. Compared with the western part of Java Island, East Java in general has less rainfall. Average rainfall is 1,900 mm per year, with a rainy season during the 100 days. The average temperature ranges between 21-34 °C. Temperatures in the lower mountain areas, and even in areas Ranu Pani (slopes of Mount Semeru), temperatures can reach minus 4 °C, causing a downfall of soft snow.

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