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Shebin-El-Kom - Egypt

While the city is not a new one, its infrastructure is being modernized. The most important central and local government offices are located in the city, as well as the main branches of Menoufia University. The city has several public and private schools, hospitals, a large stadium, a regional office of Telecom Egypt, organized trade unions, athletic teams, political parties and social organizations and a chamber of commerce.

According to population estimates from 2015 the majority of residents in the governorate live in rural areas, with an urbanization rate of only 20.6%. Out of an estimated 3,941,293 people residing in the governorate, 3,128,460 people live in rural areas as opposed to only 812,833 in urban areas.

In 1826 Mohammed Ali transferred the capital of Monufia from Menouf to Shibin El Kom as the later fell exactly in the center of the governorate. Other than Shibin El Kom, the governorate had four other administrative divisions which are Quesna, Tala, Menouf and Talawy. In 1942, El Shohada became a new administrative division and included parts from Shibin El Kom and Tala. In 1947, Bagour was created to encompass regions from Menouf, Talawy, Quesna and Shibin El Kom. In 1955, five villages were taken from Tala and redistributed to Tanta. in 1960, Berket El Sabe'e (Lake of the Lion) was established and consisted of former towns and villages of Tala, Quesna and Shibin El Kom. In 1975, Sers El Lyan became a city rather than a village after it was separated from Menouf. In 1991, the Sadat City was annexed to Monufia being its only region west of the Rosetta branch. In the final round of the 2012 Egyptian presidential election, Monufia had the highest voter turnout rate of all governorates (61.5%) as well as the most overwhelming support for candidate Ahmed Shafik (71.5%).

The name of al-Gharbiyya ("the western one") has been used as a district name in Egypt since shortly after the Muslim conquest of Egypt. In the 13th century it comprised 165 villages, while the 15th-century geographer al-Qalqashandi describes it as fertile and prosperous.

El Mahalla El Kubra was the provincial capital until 1836, when it was succeeded by Tanta.

In modern times, it is notable for the cultivation of cotton, and its textile industry.

Kafr El Sheikh Governorate, which was once part of the Gharbia Governorate, was created in 1949. It was originally named Fuadiyah in honor of King Fuad I of Egypt. After the 1952 Revolution and the subsequent abolition of the monarchy, the governorate took the name of its capital city Kafr El Sheikh. This name, adopted in 1955, means "the village of the chief".

The area occupied today by the Kafr El Sheikh Governorate has been inhabited since ancient times. The capital of Lower Egypt, called "Buto", is located at present-day Tell El Faraain (the Hill of the Pharaohs), near Desouk .

Kafr El Sheikh is located in the southern side of the Kafr El Sheikh Governorate, it is famous for agriculture, escpecially the production of rice. The city is surrounded to the east by the villages of Qantara and Sawalha which are separated by a small Canal.

From north to south, the delta is approximately 160 km (99 mi) in length. From west-to-east, it covers some 240 km (150 mi) of coastline. The delta is sometimes divided into sections, with the Nile dividing into two main distributaries, the Damietta and the Rosetta, flowing into the Mediterranean at port cities with the same name. In the past, the delta had several distributaries, but these have been lost due to flood control, silting and changing relief. One such defunct distributary is Wadi Tumilat.

The Suez Canal is located to the east of the delta and enters the coastal Lake Manzala in the north-east of the delta. To the north-west are three other coastal lakes or lagoons: Lake Burullus, Lake Idku and Lake Maryut.

The Nile is considered to be an "arcuate" delta (arc-shaped), as it resembles a triangle or flower when seen from above. The outer edges of the delta are eroding, and some coastal lagoons have seen increasing salinity levels as their connection to the Mediterranean Sea increases. Since the delta no longer receives an annual supply of nutrients and sediments from upstream due to the construction of the Aswan High Dam, the soils of the floodplains have become poorer, and large amounts of fertilizers are now used. Topsoil in the delta can be as much as 21 m (70 ft) in depth.

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